Interesting article, but I have a question:

It seems to me that 'Understanding as Connected Information' (aka associationism/connectionism) is a model of what understanding IS whereas the other four are models of what understanding DOES, often whilst interacting with some other ability that the understander has (such as the ability to digest information and re-express it in ways that others come to also understand it).

Are the ways of understanding 2-5 really ways of understanding or, more correctly, ways of making use of that which has been understood?